Subject: Machine translation
Course: Machine translation
ECTS credits: 6
Language: Croatian
Duration: 1 semester
Status: obligatory / elective
Teaching methods: 2 lecture hours + 2 seminar hours
Prerequisite: N/A
Assessment: written/ oral exam, exercises, seminar

Course description:
The course includes theoretical part, practical and evaluation work and seminar relating to the use of machine translation tools ranging from existing machine translation services, translation memories, terminology bases, thesauri and various types of dictionaries. The theoretical part of machine translation (MT) elaborates aims, needs, state of the art, misconceptions, limitations, real possibilities, EU demands, multilingual applications then requirements to text types, formalization problem and the role of sublanguage. History of MT is elaborated through strategies, software applications and theoretical models, followed by degrees of automation, differences between machine translation (MT) and computer-assisted translation (CAT).  Evaluation of different computer-assisted translation tools is offered through theory and practical work in respect with automatic and human evaluation metrics, as well as the role of corpus linguistics. Use, analysis and evaluation of MT online services, CAT tools and resources is performed, ranging from electronic dictionaries, terminology bases, ontologies, translation memories, online translation tools. Similar European courses and projects on MT and CAT tools are presented. Practical classes follow lecture hours including usage and integration of translation. Seminar work relating to the use of MT and CAT tools is presented during lecture hours.

Course objectives:
Students will acquire knowledge about real possibilities, limitations and needs for machine translation and computer-assisted translation. Except theoretical part, students will implement acquired knowledge through the use of translation-aided electronic tools (translation software, electronic dictionaries, terminology bases, translation memory), evaluate and compare tools and propose real-use solutions. In the seminar work students will present results of individual or team research related to the course and present it during lecture hours.



Teaching methods:

- classical frontal methods and by e-learning system

lectures - theoretical part

exercises - individual work

seminar - individual or team work, class presentation

Final grade:

course attendance


seminar work

written/ oral exam

Quality check and success of the course:

The evaluation will be performed inside and outside evaluations and by mentoring work, i.e. by the teacher, students, participation on seminars, conferences, workshops and in different cooperation activities.

Reading list

1.Sanja Seljan et al. Computational Language Analysis: Computer-Assisted Translation and e-Language Learning . Zagreb: Zavod za informacijske studije, 2012. V+360 str. (odabrana poglavlja)
2. European Commission, DGT. Translation Tools and Workflow, 2012.

3. Introduction to Machine Translation: An Online Tutorial, 2008.
4. Arnold, Doug. Machine Translation: An Introductory Guide . University of Essex, 2008.
5. Seljan, Sanja. Translation Technology as Challenge in Education and Business // Informatologia 44 (2011), 4, 279-286

6. Dovedan, Zdravko; Seljan, Sanja; Vučković, Kristina. Strojno prevođenje kao pomoć u procesu komunikacije. Str. 283-291. Informatologia 35 (4), 2002.

7. Seljan, Sanja; Gašpar, Angelina. Primjena prevoditeljskih alata u EU i potreba za hrvatskim tehnologijama // Jezična politika i jezična stvarnost / Granić, Jagoda (ur.). Zagreb : HDPL, 2009, 617-625.

8. Kučiš, Vlasta; Seljan, Sanja; Klasnić, Ksenija. Evaluation of Electronic Translation Tools Through Quality Parameters // The Future of Information Sciences: INFuture2009 - Digital Resources and Knowledge Sharing . Zagreb : Odsjek za informacijske znanosti, 2009, 341-351

9. Seljan, Sanja; Vičić, Tomislav; Brkić, Marija. BLEU Evaluation of Machine-Translated English- Croatian Legislation // Proceedings of LREC'12. Istanbul, Turkey : European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2012
10. Practical work on machine translation software and with computer-assisted translation tools and resources (online terminology bases, dictionaries monolingual and multilingual, thesauri), integration with translation memory


1. Zetzshe, Jost: A Translator's Tool Box - A Computer Primer. International Writer's Group, 2014.
2. Nirenburg, S; Somers, H; Wilks, Y. Readings in Machine Translation. MIT, 2003.
3. Maegaard, Bente, ed. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age. Proceedings, Santiago de Compsotela, Spain, 2001.
4. Richardon, S. D. Machine Translation: From Research to Real Users. 5th Conference of the AMTA, 2002.

5. Seljan, Sanja. Tehnologija i jezik // Informacijske znanosti u procesu promjena / Lasić-Lazić, Jadranka (ur.). Zagreb : Filozofski fakultet, Zavod za informacijske studije, Odsjek za informacijske znanosti, 2005. Str. 24-44
6. Wong, Sylvia: Machine Translation Techniques
7. MT 2000. Machine Translation and Multilingual Applications in the New Millenium. British Computer Society, 2000.
8. Trujillo, A.: Translation Engines: Techniques for MT , Springer, London (Ch. 6 ), 1999.
9. Allen, James. Natural Language Understanding (Knjižnica Odsjeka za informacijske znanosti
10. Balkan, L; Arnold, D; Sadler, L. Tools and Techniques for Machine Translation Teaching: A Survey
11.Cole, R., J. Mariani, H. Uszkoreit, A. Zaenen and V. Zue (eds.) Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology Computer-Aided Translation, 1996.
12. Schmidt Rio-Valle, Regina.Machine Translation today - An evaluation, 1999.
13. Seljan, Sanja. Sublanguage in Machine Translation. Proceedings of 23rd International Convention MIRO 2000: Computers in Intelligent Systems CIS + CTS . Str.17-20. Rijeka: Liniavera, 2000.

14. Presentation of researches/ projects from actual conferences


Internet resources
EAMT European Association for Machine Translation (MT Archive)

AMTA The Association for Machine Translation in the Americas

ELSNET European Network of Excellence in Human Language Technologies

International Writers' Group - The Toolkit